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Title: Elementos-traço em áreas de vegetação nativa e agricultura intensiva do estado de Mato Grosso determinados por fluorescência de raios-X por reflexão total
Other Titles: Trace elements in native vegetation and intensive agriculture areas in Mato Grosso, Brazil, determined by total reflection X-ray fluorescence
Keywords: Solos – Poluição – Medição
Metais pesados
Análise espectral - Instrumentos
Raios X
Soil pollution – Measurement
Heavy metals
Spectrum analysis – Instruments
Issue Date: Jul-2015
Publisher: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo
Citation: PIERANGELI, M. A. P. et al. Elementos-traço em áreas de vegetação nativa e agricultura intensiva do estado de Mato Grosso determinados por fluorescência de raios-X por reflexão total. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo, Viçosa, MG, v. 39, n. 4, p. 1048-1057, July/Aug. 2015.
Abstract: Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a promising technique for analysis of trace elements (TEs), mainly because samples do not need to be digested, thereby reducing generation of waste and emission of toxic fumes. This study compared the levels of the TEs:Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, Cu, As, Se, Hg, and Pb in soil samples collected from intensive agricultural and native vegetation areas, as determined by TXRF and by flame or graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS/GFAAS). In addition, we compared the levels of TEs with reference values for uncontaminated soils. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0.0-0.2 m in municipalities representing each agricultural region of Mato Grosso (Rondonópolis, Alto Garça, Primavera do Leste, Campo Novo, Nova Mutum, Lucas do Rio Verde, Sorriso, Sinop, Campo Novo dos Parecis, Campos de Julho, and Vila Bela da Santíssima Trindade). Six areas in each muncipality constituted the areas selected, for a total of 72 samples, all georeferenced. We prepared soil suspensions using Triton® 100 at 5 % v/v, with gallium as an internal standard, to read the TE contents on the TXRF S2 Picofox™ apparatus. The FAAS/GFAAS samples were digested by method 3051A. The mean contents of the TEs by TXRF in mg kg-1 were Cr 69 and 62, Zn 16 and 8, Pb 28 and 21, Mn 56 and 42, As 2 and 2, Cu 9 and 8, and Ni 2 and 2 in the samples analyzed, considering the cultivated area and the native vegetation area, respectively. Cadmium, Se, and Hg were not detected in the samples analyzed by TXRF. We detected a positive linear correlation (p<0.001) between the analysis techniques for As, Cr, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu, and Pb. In general, the levels of these TEs in TXRF were higher than the levels in FAAS/GFAAS. The contents of all elements (except Cr) detected by TXRF are within the ranges of levels reported for uncontaminated soils and far below the alert thresholds stipulated in the literature.
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