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metadata.artigo.dc.title: Relationship between processing score and kernel-fraction particle size in whole-plant corn silage
metadata.artigo.dc.creator: Dias Junior, G. S.
Ferraretto, L. F.
Salvati, G. G. S.
Resende, L. C. de
Hoffman, P. C.
Pereira, M. N.
Shaver, R. D.
metadata.artigo.dc.subject: Corn silage processing score
Particle size
Pontuação de processamento de silagem de milho
Tamanho da partícula
metadata.artigo.dc.publisher: Elsevier Apr-2016
metadata.artigo.dc.identifier.citation: DIAS JÚNIOR, G. S. et al. Relationship between processing score and kernel-fraction particle size in whole-plant corn silage. Journal of Dairy Science, Champaign, v. 99, n. 4, p. 2719-2729, Apr. 2016.
metadata.artigo.dc.description.abstract: Kernel processing increases starch digestibility in whole-plant corn silage (WPCS). Corn silage processing score (CSPS), the percentage of starch passing through a 4.75-mm sieve, is widely used to assess degree of kernel breakage in WPCS. However, the geometric mean particle size (GMPS) of the kernel-fraction that passes through the 4.75-mm sieve has not been well described. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate particle size distribution and digestibility of kernels cut in varied particle sizes; (2) to propose a method to measure GMPS in WPCS kernels; and (3) to evaluate the relationship between CSPS and GMPS of the kernel fraction in WPCS. Composite samples of unfermented, dried kernels from 110 corn hybrids commonly used for silage production were kept whole (WH) or manually cut in 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 or 64 pieces (2P, 4P, 8P, 16P, 32P, and 64P, respectively). Dry sieving to determine GMPS, surface area, and particle size distribution using 9 sieves with nominal square apertures of 9.50, 6.70, 4.75, 3.35, 2.36, 1.70, 1.18, and 0.59 mm and pan, as well as ruminal in situ dry matter (DM) digestibilities were performed for each kernel particle number treatment. Incubation times were 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. The ruminal in situ DM disappearance of unfermented kernels increased with the reduction in particle size of corn kernels. Kernels kept whole had the lowest ruminal DM disappearance for all time points with maximum DM disappearance of 6.9% at 24 h and the greatest disappearance was observed for 64P, followed by 32P and 16P. Samples of WPCS (n = 80) from 3 studies representing varied theoretical length of cut settings and processor types and settings were also evaluated. Each WPCS sample was divided in 2 and then dried at 60°C for 48 h. The CSPS was determined in duplicate on 1 of the split samples, whereas on the other split sample the kernel and stover fractions were separated using a hydrodynamic separation procedure. After separation, the kernel fraction was redried at 60°C for 48 h in a forced-air oven and dry sieved to determine GMPS and surface area. Linear relationships between CSPS from WPCS (n = 80) and kernel fraction GMPS, surface area, and proportion passing through the 4.75-mm screen were poor. Strong quadratic relationships between proportion of kernel fraction passing through the 4.75-mm screen and kernel fraction GMPS and surface area were observed. These findings suggest that hydrodynamic separation and dry sieving of the kernel fraction may provide a better assessment of kernel breakage in WPCS than CSPS.
metadata.artigo.dc.language: en_US
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