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metadata.artigo.dc.title: Short communication: Effect of washing method, grinding size, and the determination of an indigestible fraction on in situ degradation of starch in mature corn grain
metadata.artigo.dc.creator: Fernandes, T.
Ávila, C. L. S.
Pereira, M. N.
Ferraretto, L. F.
metadata.artigo.dc.subject: Soluble fraction
Effective ruminal degradation
Fractional degradation rate
Fração solúvel
Degradação ruminal efetiva
Taxa de degradação fracionada
metadata.artigo.dc.publisher: Elsevier Oct-2018
metadata.artigo.dc.identifier.citation: FERNANDES, T. et al. Short communication: Effect of washing method, grinding size, and the determination of an indigestible fraction on in situ degradation of starch in mature corn grain. Journal of Dairy Science, Champaign, v. 101, n. 10, p. 9052-9057, Oct. 2018.
metadata.artigo.dc.description.abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the effect of grinding size (1, 2, 4, and 6 mm) to determine effective ruminal disappearance (ERD); (2) the most adequate method to estimate the rapidly degradable fraction (A); (3) a time point to measure the indigestible fraction (C); and (4) the viability of using fewer time points to estimate starch fractional disappearance rate (kd) of mature corn grain. Fraction A was determined by rinsing in a bucket or washing machine, rumen immersion followed by bucket or washing machine, and water immersion for 30 min followed by bucket or washing machine. Ruminal in situ incubations were performed at 48, 72, 96, and 120 h to determine fraction C, and at 0 (washing machine), 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48 h to determine the kinetics of starch disappearance. Models were used with either 2 or 3 pools and kd was determined by the linear slope of the log-transformed bag residues as a proportion of incubated samples over time. The ERD was calculated as A + B [kd/(kd + kp)], where kp is the ruminal fractional passage rate = 16.0% h−1. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) with the fixed effects of run (for fraction A analysis only) method (either washing or model), grinding size, and method by grinding size interaction, with cow as a random effect. Correlation between estimates calculated using all time points or combinations of 2 and 3 time points were determined using PROC CORR. Fraction A was reduced as grinding size increased, but was not altered by washing method. Samples ground at 6 mm had greater fraction C than other grinding sizes at 48, 72, or 96 h, but not at 120 h. Model affected the slowly degradable fraction (B) values solely, but the difference was minor (0.5 percentage units). Greater fractions B and C but reduced kd and ERD were observed as grinding size increased. Based on correlation analysis the 2-pool model, incubation times of 0, 3, and 48 h were suitable to evaluate ruminal starch degradation kinetics in mature corn. Ruminal in situ incubation at 120 h highlighted the lack of a fraction C of starch (0.13% of starch). Washing method did not affect determination of fraction A of starch. Ruminal in situ incubations of 0, 3, and 48 h for starch degradation kinetics using a 2-pool model were adequate for mature ground corn, but 120 h of incubation is suggested to confirm the existence or absence of a fraction C. Grinding size affected starch degradation kinetics and fraction A determination.
metadata.artigo.dc.language: en_US
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