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Title: The fundamental of the effects of water, organic matter, and iron forms on the pXRF information in soil analyses
Keywords: Proximal sensing
Soil mineralogy
Tropical soils
Soil fertility
Detecção proximal
Mineralogia do solo
Solos tropicais
Fertilidade do solo
Issue Date: Mar-2022
Publisher: Elsevier
Citation: ROSIN, N. A. et al. The fundamental of the effects of water, organic matter, and iron forms on the pXRF information in soil analyses. Catena, Amsterdam, v. 210, 105868, Mar. 2022. DOI: 10.1016/j.catena.2021.105868.
Abstract: Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) has great potential for numerous applications in soil science. However, the basic knowledge about the effects of soil properties on pXRF spectra are still poorly studied, which may lead users to biased interpretations of mathematical models. The present study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of moisture, soil organic matter content (SOM), and iron forms on pXRF data. The work was conducted with seventeen soil samples from the central region of São Paulo state (Brazil). Three selective dissolution treatments were applied to remove: (i) soil organic matter (−SOM), ii) SOM and poorly crystalline iron forms (−o), iii) SOM and poorly crystalline plus well crystalline iron forms (−d). One additional treatment iv) including water addition (+W) was also carried out. The effects of treatments were evaluated for sandy and clayey samples. Soil particle size distribution and elemental content affected the bremsstrahlung and characteristic peaks counts. In +W, there was a generalized decrease in counts mainly for the light elements (magnesium, aluminum and silicon). Regarding the selective dissolution procedures, alterations were verified, reflecting mainly the removal power of reagents. Generally, the most pronounced alterations occurred for −d and moderate alterations for −SOM and −o. The pXRF data showed high correlation with particle size distribution and mineralogy attributes. The kaolinite, gibbsite, Fe2O3, Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2 and MnO contents were quantified with satisfactory accuracy (0.61 < R2 < 0.97). The pXRF was able to detect changes caused by the selective dissolution treatments and soil particle size distribution. Sources of uncertainty, mainly soil moisture, must be considered. The understanding of the fundamentals of energy interaction with the sample matrix in the X-ray range is the starting point for characterizing the soil through pXRF.
Appears in Collections:DCS - Artigos publicados em periódicos

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